Grip strength across the life course: normative data from twelve British studies

Publication type

Journal Article

Published in

PLoS ONE

Authors

Richard M. Dodds, Holly E. Syddall, Rachel Cooper, Michaela Benzeval, Ian J. Deary, Elaine M. Dennison, Geoff Der, Catharine R. Gale, Hazel M. Inskip, Carol Jagger, Thomas B. Kirkwood, Debbie A. Lawlor, Sian M. Robinson, John M. Starr, Andrew Steptoe, Kate Tilling, Diana Kuh, Cyrus Cooper and Avan Aihie Sayer

Publication date

Summary

Introduction
Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol.
Methods
We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing).
Results
Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males’ peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position.
Conclusion
This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty.

Volume

9

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113637

ISSN

16

Subjects

Medicine, Health, Life Course Analysis and Biology

Notes

Open Access article; Copyright: © 2014 Dodds et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.