Neighbourhood effects and pension protection among ethnic minorities in England and Wales

Publication type

Journal Article

Published in

Population, Space and Place


Zhixin Feng, Athina Vlachantoni, Maria Evandrou and Jane Falkingham

Publication date


Ethnic minorities are concentrated in particular geographical areas in
England and Wales. Neighbourhood effects, such as the concentration of
individuals from particular ethnic groups and levels of local
deprivation, can impact upon the labour market performance of ethnic
minorities and thus may affect individuals' pension protection. This
paper examines the neighbourhood effect on pension protection for ethnic
minorities in England and Wales using the wave 1 (January 2009–March
2011) dataset of the Understanding Society linked with a range of
neighbourhood characteristics from the 2011 UK Census. Results from
multilevel logistic models highlight that in addition to the effect of
individual characteristics on patterns of pension protection, the level
of concentration of own-ethnic-group individuals is significantly
negatively correlated with a range of key indicators associated with
pension protection such as being in paid employment, being an employee,
and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, the
concentration of one's own ethnic group has no significant effect on the
likelihood of being a member of an employer's pension scheme after
controlling for other factors. Living in a deprived neighbourhood is
negatively correlated with one's likelihood to be in paid employment or
being self-employed. Furthermore, individuals are less likely to be
members of an employer's pension scheme if they live in highly deprived

Volume and page numbers

22, 317-331





Area Effects, Pensions and Ethnic Groups


© 2015 The Authors. Population, Space and Place. Published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.; Open Access article; This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.