Local food outlet exposure, food spending and obesity in England: moving from correlation to causation

Publication type

Conference Paper


Tarra Penney

Publication date


With the increased prevalence of food outlets for away-from-home eating, in combination with a time constrained population, a greater proportion of household food spending in the UK is being directed toward prepared meals. This paper uses UK Household Longitudinal Study and food outlet location data to examine the association between density of away from home food outlets, proportion of away from home household food spending and obesity status for England, UK. Given the challenges in studying causal effects between built environment exposures and diet or health outcomes, this paper also examines the utility of residential relocation as a means to examine change in local food outlet exposure in future research.


Area Effects, Time Use and Health