Later retirement, job strain, and health: evidence from the new State Pension age in the United Kingdom

Publication type

Journal Article

Published in

Health Economics


Ludovico Carrino, Karen Glaser and Mauricio Avendano

Publication date


This paper examines the impact of raising the State Pension age on women's health. Exploiting a UK pension reform that increased women's State Pension age for up to 6 years since 2010, we show that raising the State Pension age leads to an increase of up to 12 percentage points in the probability of depressive symptoms, alongside an increase in self‐reported medically diagnosed depression among women in a lower occupational grade. Our results suggest that these effects are driven by prolonged exposure to high‐strain jobs characterised by high demands and low control. Effects are consistent across multiple subcomponents of the General Health Question and Short‐Form‐12 (SF‐12) scores, and robust to alternative empirical specifications, including “placebo” analyses for women who never worked and for men.





Older People, Pensions, Psychology, Labour Market, Economics, Public Policy, Well Being, Health and Life Course Analysis


Online Early; Open Access; © 2020 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd; This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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