Long work hours, weekend working and depressive symptoms in men and women: findings from a UK population-based study
AuthorsGillian Weston, Afshin Zilanawala, Elizabeth Webb, Livia A. Carvalho and Anne McMunn
Method: The current study analysed data from Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, of 11 215 men and 12 188 women in employment or self-employment at the time of the study. Ordinary least squares regression models, adjusted for potential confounders and psychosocial work factors, were used to estimate depressive symptoms across categories of work hours and weekend work patterns.
Results: Relative to a standard 35–40 hours/week, working 55 hours/week or more related to more depressive symptoms among women (ß=0.75, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.39), but not for men (ß=0.24, 95% CI −0.10 to 0.58). Compared with not working weekends, working most or all weekends related to more depressive symptoms for both men (ß=0.34, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.61) and women (ß=0.50, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.79); however, working some weekends only related to more depressive symptoms for men (ß=0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.55), not women (ß=0.17, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.42).
Conclusion: Increased depressive symptoms were independently linked to working extra-long hours for women, whereas increased depressive symptoms were associated with working weekends for both genders, suggesting these work patterns may contribute to worse mental health.
- Women who work long hours at higher risk of depression
- Women who work long hours have a higher risk of depression than men, study finds
- Are women who work long hours more likely to be depressed?
- Women's long hours 'affect mental health'
- Women working longer hours more likely to be depressed – study. Research also finds men and women who work weekends more likely to have low moods
- Working long hours ‘linked to depression in women but not men’